Skip to main content


Human Equivalent Dose: Limitations and Alternatives

Human equivalent dose (HED) is a widely used concept in drug development, but it has limitations in accurately predicting the appropriate dose for humans based on animal studies alone. In this article, we will explore the limitations of HED and some of the alternatives that researchers are using to better predict drug dosing in humans. Limitations of HED One of the main limitations of HED is the assumption that metabolic rate scales predictably with body weight across species. However, metabolic rate can vary between species and can be affected by factors such as age, gender, and disease state. This variability can make it difficult to accurately predict the appropriate dosage for humans based on animal studies alone. Another limitation of HED is the lack of consideration for other factors that can affect drug metabolism and response in humans, such as genetic differences and drug-drug interactions. HED calculations assume that all humans have the same metabolic rate and response to
Recent posts

Researchers Discover Key to T Cell Exhaustion in Cancer Treatment

Scientists have found the source of T cell exhaustion, a problem that reduces the effectiveness of CAR T-cell therapy, a treatment used to fight cancer. CAR T-cell therapy uses a patient's immune system T cells, modifies them to attack cancer cells, and then injects them back into the patient. However, these T cells often become exhausted and stop fighting cancer. Researchers from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and NYU Grossman School of Medicine have discovered that mSWI/SNF protein complexes play a crucial role in both activating T cells and causing exhaustion. This finding, published in the journal Molecular Cell, suggests that targeting these complexes could reduce exhaustion and improve the ability of CAR T cells to fight cancer. The scientists found that the location of mSWI/SNF complexes on T cell DNA changes depending on certain proteins called transcription factors. By inhibiting specific genes related to these complexes, the T cells were able to continue fighting cancer

Researchers identify protein partners that might repair cardiac muscle

Researchers identify protein partners that might repair cardiac muscle- In a new study, researchers have identified a number of protein partners that could help repair damaged cardiac muscle. The study, conducted in mice, found that a protein called Tbx20 interacts with several other proteins to promote the growth and regeneration of cardiac muscle cells. While the study is still in its early stages, the findings could one day lead to new treatments for heart disease. What is cardiac muscle? Cardiac muscle is the muscle tissue of the heart, and is responsible for contracting and pumping blood throughout the body. Cardiac muscle is made up of long, thin cells called cardiocytes, which are arranged in a lattice-like structure. The cardiocytes are interconnected by gap junctions, which allow electrical impulses to pass from cell to cell and coordinate the contractions of the heart. The protein partners that researchers have identified might help to repair cardiac muscle by promoting

Novel Bladder Cancer Treatment Shows Promise

Novel Bladder Cancer Treatment Shows Promise- A new study has found that a novel treatment for bladder cancer is effective in reducing the size of tumors and killing cancer cells. The study, which was conducted by researchers at the University of Michigan, is the first to show that the treatment is effective in humans. The treatment, which is called "intravesical immunotherapy," involves injecting a patient's own immune cells into their bladder. The immune cells are then able to attack the cancer cells, reducing the size of tumors and killing them. This study provides promising results for the use of this novel treatment for bladder cancer, and further research will be necessary to confirm its efficacy. What is bladder cancer? Bladder cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the bladder, which is a hollow organ in the pelvis that stores urine. The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma, which begins in the urothelium, the layer of cells th

A new theory suggests Alzheimer’s is an autoimmune condition

A new theory suggests Alzheimer’s is an autoimmune condition: Autoimmune conditions are on the rise. In the last few decades, we’ve seen an increase in allergies, autoimmune diseases, and even autism. What’s behind this surge? There are a number of theories, but a new study suggests that Alzheimer’s may be added to the list of autoimmune conditions. The study found that people with Alzheimer’s had higher levels of antibodies that attack a specific protein in the brain. While more research is needed to confirm this theory, it could lead to new treatments for Alzheimer’s and other autoimmune conditions. What is Alzheimer's Disease? Alzheimer's disease is a degenerative brain disorder that typically affects older adults. The disease is characterized by the gradual deterioration of cognitive function and memory. Early onset Alzheimer's disease can occur in people as young as their 30s or 40s. The exact cause of Alzheimer's disease is unknown, but it is believed to be a

New Study Reveals Cerebellum Is Important For Surviving

New Study Reveals Cerebellum Is Important For Surviving- A new study has revealed that the cerebellum, often thought to be responsible for motor control and balance, may also play an important role in survival. The study, conducted by researchers at the University of Leicester, found that when the cerebellum is damaged, animals are more likely to die from predators or accidents. While the cerebellum makes up just 10 percent of the brain, it contains 50 percent of all neurons. The findings suggest that the cerebellum may be important for complex processes such as decision-making and planning. The study is published in the journal Nature Neuroscience. What is the cerebellum? The cerebellum, or “little brain,” is located at the back of the brain beneath the cerebral hemispheres. This important structure coordinates movement and balance and is essential for survival. A new study published in Nature Neuroscience reveals that the cerebellum is also important for regulating blood pressur

Scientists identify molecule that may have been key to formation of life on Earth

In a recent study, scientists have identified a molecule that may have been key to the formation of life on Earth. The molecule, called adenine, is found in all known forms of life, and is a key component of DNA and RNA. While the study does not definitively prove that adenine was necessary for life to form on Earth, it does provide strong evidence that it was likely a key player in the process. The findings could have implications for our understanding of the origins of life in the universe. What is the molecule? The molecule in question is called adenine, and it is one of the key building blocks of DNA. Adenine is essential for the proper functioning of DNA, and it is thought to have played a vital role in the formation of life on Earth. Adenine is a nitrogenous base that helps to form the double helix structure of DNA. It is also responsible for the genetic code, which determines the order of amino acids in proteins. without adenine, life as we know it would not be possible. Ph

Different types of Staining Methods in Pathology?

Different types of Staining Methods in Pathology? Pathology is the study of disease. It involves the examination of tissues and organs to determine the cause of a person’s illness. Pathologists use many different techniques to examine tissues and organs. One of these techniques is staining. What is staining in pathology? Different types of staining methods are used in pathology to help identify cells and cell structures. The most common staining method is called H&E staining, which uses hematoxylin (a blue dye) and eosin (a pink dye). Other staining methods include: Photo by turek: - acid-fast staining : used to identify bacteria that are resistant to acid ( Basic Fuchsin Solution ) -antibody staining: used to identify specific proteins or antigens in cells -DNA staining: used to visualize DNA in cells - lipid staining: used to visualize fats and other lipids in cells Pathologists often use multiple staining methods on th